Friday, 3 June 2016

Imaging in Thyroid Eye Disease - Role of CT, MRI, Isotope Scans

Imaging in Thyroid Eye Disease - Role of CT, MRI, Isotope Scans

invited presentation at NUH Eye International Congress 2016 held in conjunction with XII ISOT Meeting, III APOTS Meeting and NUH Ophthalmology Department 30th Anniversary Celebration at the NUHS Tower Block on 4th November 2016

Opening comments

"Thank you to Dr Ganga, and the members of the Scientific, and organising committee for inviting me to give this presentation.

Congratulations to the NUH Ophthalmology Department, which is celebrating a significant 30 year milestone this year. I feel a great sense of nostalgia, and happiness to participate in this conference, particularly since I spent a very happy 6 months as an ophthalmology MO 27 years ago during my first job in NUH, before joining the Radiology department; and subsequently have worked closely with members of the Ophthalmology Department at NUH on both academic projects, as well as during monthly clinical-radiology-pathology correlation education rounds over the last 15 years.

One big challenge for listeners in this session, which is jam packed with great content, from distinguished speakers and experienced subspecialty practitioners in this area, is "cognitive overload". In order to minimise this, I will give a "different" style presentation, highlighting one key slide first, the summary slide, and then the use of this presentation blog/website as a resource that participants can use to review, and study the subject further after this presentation. When given the invitation to speak on this topic, I took this as an opportunity to do an in depth literature, online resource, and textbook review of this topic, and the results of this journey has been documented within this presentation blog after the "presentation SlideDeck" embedded following these opening comments.

One of the key ideas we are most aware of as educators is that it is not what is presented, but what listeners take away from a presentation, and are able to recall, and make use of, which is most important.

To facilitate this, may I invite the audience to focus on the title of the presentation, selected by the Scientific Committee. In the title, "Imaging in TED", consider why Ultrasound was not included in the title, which was given to me to speak on. Furthermore, one might speculate why Isotope scans were included in the title, particularly since when asked, my senior Nuclear Medicine colleague tells me that there is no place for Isotope imaging in day to day, practical imaging and clinical practice. It turns out that Somatostatin receptor imaging does offer some information about disease activity, though for a variety of reasons, and from a practical point of view, isotope imaging is not used in day to day clinical practice. Reviewing some of the literature on isotope imaging however helps us understand TED better.

I will now put up the summary slide, and then illustrate some of the key points visually using the rest of the SlideDeck below. Please review the additional resources on this blog after the presentation. I hope you find them useful in your clinical practice.


Google search for "Imaging in thyroid eye disease"
(Google image search for "Imaging in thyroid eye disease")

Pubmed /literature search (below) including review articles:

Review articles (Pubmed list) including several below

"Although the diagnosis of Graves' orbitopathy is primarily made clinically based on laboratory tests indicative of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity, imaging studies ...... play an important role both in the diagnosis and follow-up after clinical or surgical treatment of the disease. Imaging studies can be used to evaluate morphological abnormalities of the orbital structures during the diagnostic workup when a differential diagnosis versus other orbital diseases is needed. Imaging may also be useful to distinguish the inflammatory early stage from the inactive stage of the disease. Finally, imaging studies can be of great help in identifying patients prone to develop dysthyroid optic neuropathy and therefore enabling the timely diagnosis and treatment of the condition, avoiding permanent visual loss."
Abstract from
Gonçalves AC, Gebrim EM, Monteiro ML. Imaging studies for diagnosing Graves'
orbitopathy and dysthyroid optic neuropathy. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2012
Nov;67(11):1327-34. Review. PubMed PMID: 23184212; PubMed Central PMCID:
PMC3488994. (including open access link)

Soeters MR, van Zeijl CJ, Boelen A, Kloos R, Saeed P, Vriesendorp TM, Mourits
MP. Optimal management of Graves orbitopathy: a multidisciplinary approach. Neth
J Med. 2011 Jul-Aug;69(7):302-8. Review. PubMed PMID: 21934174. (including open access link)

Kirsch E, Hammer B, von Arx G. Graves' orbitopathy: current imaging
procedures. Swiss Med Wkly. 2009 Oct 31;139(43-44):618-23. doi: smw-12741.
Review. PubMed PMID: 19950023. (including open access link)

from longer list below

1: Chuma-Bitcon V, Gruson D. The role of laboratory diagnostics in patient
management for Graves' disease. MLO Med Lab Obs. 2016 Jul;48(7):28, 30, 33.
Review. PubMed PMID: 27548921.

2: Walasik-Szemplińska D, Pauk-Domańska M, Sanocka U, Sudoł-Szopińska I. Doppler
imaging of orbital vessels in the assessment of the activity and severity of
thyroid-associated orbitopathy. J Ultrason. 2015 Dec;15(63):388-97. doi:
10.15557/JoU.2015.0036. Review. PubMed PMID: 26807296; PubMed Central PMCID:

3: Orlans HO, Bremner FD. Dysthyroid Orbitopathy Presenting with Gaze-Evoked
Amaurosis: Case Report and Review of the Literature. Orbit. 2015;34(6):324-6.
doi: 10.3109/01676830.2015.1078374. Review. PubMed PMID: 26505217.

4: Costello F. Inflammatory optic neuropathies. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2014
Aug;20(4 Neuro-ophthalmology):816-37. doi: 10.1212/01.CON.0000453316.60013.52.
Review. PubMed PMID: 25099096.

5: Gonçalves AC, Gebrim EM, Monteiro ML. Imaging studies for diagnosing Graves'
orbitopathy and dysthyroid optic neuropathy. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2012
Nov;67(11):1327-34. Review. PubMed PMID: 23184212; PubMed Central PMCID:

6: Tourbah A. Contribution of imaging to the diagnosis of optic neuropathies. Rev
Neurol (Paris). 2012 Oct;168(10):702-5. doi: 10.1016/j.neurol.2012.07.012.
Review. PubMed PMID: 22981271.

7: Müller-Forell W, Kahaly GJ. Neuroimaging of Graves' orbitopathy. Best Pract
Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jun;26(3):259-71. doi:
10.1016/j.beem.2011.11.009. Review. PubMed PMID: 22632363.

8: Soeters MR, van Zeijl CJ, Boelen A, Kloos R, Saeed P, Vriesendorp TM, Mourits
MP. Optimal management of Graves orbitopathy: a multidisciplinary approach. Neth
J Med. 2011 Jul-Aug;69(7):302-8. Review. PubMed PMID: 21934174.

9: Leong SC, White PS. Outcomes following surgical decompression for dysthyroid
orbitopathy (Graves' disease). Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010
Feb;18(1):37-43. doi: 10.1097/MOO.0b013e328335017c. Review. PubMed PMID:

10: Kirsch E, Hammer B, von Arx G. Graves' orbitopathy: current imaging
procedures. Swiss Med Wkly. 2009 Oct 31;139(43-44):618-23. doi: smw-12741.
Review. PubMed PMID: 19950023.

11: Kirsch E, von Arx G, Hammer B. Imaging in Graves' orbitopathy. Orbit.
2009;28(4):219-25. Review. PubMed PMID: 19839878.

12: Bose S. Neuroimaging in neuroophthalmology. Neurosurg Focus. 2007;23(5):E9.
Review. PubMed PMID: 18004971.

13: Morax S, Ben Ayed H. [Orbital decompression for dysthyroid orbitopathy: a
review of techniques and indications]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2004 Sep;27(7):828-44.
Review. French. PubMed PMID: 15499287.

14: Boncoeur MP. [Dysthyroid orbitopathy: imaging]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2004
Sep;27(7):815-8. Review. French. PubMed PMID: 15499283.

15: Camezind P, Robert PY, Adenis JP. [Clinical signs of dysthyroid orbitopathy].
J Fr Ophtalmol. 2004 Sep;27(7):810-4. Review. French. PubMed PMID: 15499282.

16: Szúcs-Farkas Z, Galuska L, Nagy VE. [Current imaging methods in Graves'
ophthalmopathy]. Orv Hetil. 2004 Apr 25;145(17):891-9. Review. Hungarian. PubMed
PMID: 15170966.

17: Pérez Moreiras JV, Coloma Bockos JE, Prada Sánchez MC. [Thyroid orbitopathy
(pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment)]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2003
Aug;78(8):407-31. Review. Spanish. PubMed PMID: 12955622.

18: Fung S, Malhotra R, Selva D. Thyroid orbitopathy. Aust Fam Physician. 2003
Aug;32(8):615-20. Review. PubMed PMID: 12973869.

19: Kazim M, Goldberg RA, Smith TJ. Insights into the pathogenesis of
thyroid-associated orbitopathy: evolving rationale for therapy. Arch Ophthalmol.
2002 Mar;120(3):380-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 11879144.

20: Ebner R. Dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON). Semin Ophthalmol. 2002
Mar;17(1):18-21. Review. PubMed PMID: 15513451.

21: Kahaly GJ. Imaging in thyroid-associated orbitopathy. Eur J Endocrinol. 2001
Aug;145(2):107-18. Review. PubMed PMID: 11454505.

22: Weber AL, Romo LV, Sabates NR. Pseudotumor of the orbit. Clinical,
pathologic, and radiologic evaluation. Radiol Clin North Am. 1999
Jan;37(1):151-68, xi. Review. PubMed PMID: 10026735.

23: Kendall-Taylor P, Perros P. Clinical presentation of thyroid associated
orbitopathy. Thyroid. 1998 May;8(5):427-8. Review. PubMed PMID: 9623736.

24: Domenjôd M, Merle H, Gerard M, Ayeboua L, Poman G. [Dysthyroid optic
neuropathy. Apropos of 2 cases]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 1996;19(8-9):543-50. Review.
French. PubMed PMID: 8944137.

25: Bartley GB, Gorman CA. Diagnostic criteria for Graves' ophthalmopathy. Am J
Ophthalmol. 1995 Jun;119(6):792-5. Review. PubMed PMID: 7785696.

26: Jorissen M, Feenstra L. Dysthyroid orbitopathy and orbital decompression. A
review. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg. 1992;46(3):303-9. Review. PubMed PMID:

A longer list of recent publications on topics in orbital imaging below (PubMed link - then select by year of publication):

1: Purohit BS, Vargas MI, Ailianou A, Merlini L, Poletti PA, Platon A, Delattre
BM, Rager O, Burkhardt K, Becker M. Orbital tumours and tumour-like lesions:
exploring the armamentarium of multiparametric imaging. Insights Imaging. 2016
Feb;7(1):43-68. doi: 10.1007/s13244-015-0443-8. PubMed PMID: 26518678; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC4729705.

2: Narvid J, Talbott JF, Glastonbury CM. The caverno-apical triangle:
anatomic-pathological considerations and pictorial review. Clin Imaging. 2016
Jan-Feb;40(1):23-32. doi: 10.1016/j.clinimag.2015.08.005. Review. PubMed PMID:

3: Hoch M, Win W, Hagiwara M, Fatterpekar G, Patel S. Orbital lesions with low
signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging. Clin Radiol. 2016 Jan;71(1):e88-95. doi:
10.1016/j.crad.2015.10.011. Review. PubMed PMID: 26602937.

4: Vachha BA, Robson CD. Imaging of Pediatric Orbital Diseases. Neuroimaging Clin
N Am. 2015 Aug;25(3):477-501. doi: 10.1016/j.nic.2015.05.009. Review. PubMed
PMID: 26208421.

5: Reith W, Yilmaz U. [Orbit: Part 1: anatomy, imaging procedures and retrobulbar
lesions]. Radiologe. 2015 Aug;55(8):701-18; quiz 719-20. doi:
10.1007/s00117-015-2868-y. Review. German. PubMed PMID: 26296805.

6: Guo P, Xian J, Chen G, Liang X, Yang B, Wang Z, Yan F. [Features of clinical
presentation, pathology and magnetic resonance or computed tomography imaging for
ocular lymphoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2015 Mar 24;95(11):814-8. Chinese.
PubMed PMID: 26080911.

7: Langner S. [Optimized imaging of the midface and orbits].
Laryngorhinootologie. 2015 Mar;94 Suppl 1:S248-71. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1398513.
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8: Meltzer DE. Orbital imaging: a pattern-based approach. Radiol Clin North Am.
2015 Jan;53(1):37-80. doi: 10.1016/j.rcl.2014.09.004. Review. PubMed PMID:

9: Dharsono F, van Heerden J, Mesbah Ardakani N, Franconi C, Honeybul S, Lind CR,
McAuliffe W. Vanishing bone disease of the orbital roof: now you see it, now you
don't. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2014 Oct;58(5):582-4. doi:
10.1111/1754-9485.12199. PubMed PMID: 24976008.

10: McNab AA, Selva D, Hardy TG, O'Donnell B. The anatomical location and
laterality of orbital cavernous haemangiomas. Orbit. 2014 Oct;33(5):359-62. doi:
10.3109/01676830.2014.915329. PubMed PMID: 24831510.

11: Tiegs-Heiden CA, Eckel LJ, Hunt CH, Diehn FE, Schwartz KM, Kallmes DF,
Salomão DR, Witzig TE, Garrity JA. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease of the
orbit: imaging features in 27 patients. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2014
Jul;35(7):1393-7. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A3865. PubMed PMID: 24627453.

12: Panda A, Sharma S, Jana M, Arora A, Sharma SK. Ophthalmic manifestations of
systemic diseases--part 2: metabolic, infections, granulomatoses, demyelination,
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13: Burns NS, Iyer RS, Robinson AJ, Chapman T. Diagnostic imaging of fetal and
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16: Avetisov SE, Kharlap SI, Eksarenko OV, Sheremet NL, Razumova IIu,
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21: Kim E, Kim HJ, Kim YD, Woo KI, Lee H, Kim ST. Subconjunctival fat prolapse
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22: Vohra ST, Escott EJ, Stevens D, Branstetter BF. Categorization and
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23: Swanger RS, Crum AV, Klett ZG, Bokhari SA. Postsurgical imaging of the globe.
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24: Rose GE, Verity DH. Neuro-ophthalmology of orbital disease. Handb Clin
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25: Dastgir G, Gutman J, Nakra T, Shinder R. Re: "Indications for orbital imaging
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26: Wu AY, Jebodhsingh K, Le T, Law C, Tucker NA, DeAngelis DD, Oestreicher JH,
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27: Yoon MK, McCulley TJ. Orbital disease in neuro-ophthalmology. Neurol Clin.
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29: Spira D, Ernemann U, Schulze M, Horger M. [Imaging of orbital tumors]. Rofo.
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31: Pelton RW. The anterior eyelid crease approach to the orbit. Curr Opin
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32: Zampa V, Bargellini I, Ortori S, Faggioni L, Cioni R, Bartolozzi C. Osteoid
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33: Mueller EB, Niethammer K, Rees D, Partsch CJ. Orbital compression syndrome in
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34: Balci NC, Befeler AS, Bieneman BK, Fattahi R, Saglam S, Havlioglu N. Fat
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36: Dunn IF, Kim DH, Rubin PA, Blinder R, Gates J, Golby AJ. Orbitocranial wooden
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37: Karkos PD, Khoo LC, Leong SC, Lewis-Jones H, Swift AC. Computed tomography
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38: Kösling S, Neumann K, Brandt S. [CT and MRI of intrinsic space-occupying
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39: Pang CE, Teoh SC. Anterior uveitis as a clinical presentation of orbital
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41: De Wyngaert R, Casteels I, Demaerel P. Orbital and anterior visual pathway
infection and inflammation. Neuroradiology. 2009 Jun;51(6):385-96. doi:
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45: Fu CH, Huang SF, Jung SM, Chin SC, Liao CT, Chen IH. Radiology quiz case 2.
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46: Mawlawi O, Townsend DW. Multimodality imaging: an update on PET/CT
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51: Kolk A, Stimmer H, Klopfer M, Wolff KD, Hohlweg-Majert B, Ploder O, Pautke C.
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52: Szatmáry G. Imaging of the orbit. Neurol Clin. 2009 Feb;27(1):251-84, x. doi:
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53: Lee TJ, Li SP, Fu CH, Huang CC, Chang PH, Chen YW, Chen CW. Extensive
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57: Earl JB, Kramm L, Durairaj VD. Benign hamartoma masquerading as a deep
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58: Sáenz-Madrazo N, Arribas-Garcia I, Tejada-Palacios P, Romance-Garcia A.
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59: Barry G, Khachikian S, Beck A, Belden C, Pearce J, Simon JW. Optic canal
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61: Gündüz K, Kurt RA, Kaygusuz G, Kankaya D. Primary chondromesenchymal
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62: Heufelder MJ, Sterker I, Trantakis C, Schneider JP, Meixensberger J, Hemprich
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63: Sokol JA, Kazim M, Kelly KM, Lantos G, Leung LS, Baron E. Adult orbital
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64: Yeniad B, Tuncer S, Peksayar G, Mete O, Minareci O. Primary orbital
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65: Price KM, Cummings TJ, Etter JR, Woodward JA. Ectopic brain in the orbit
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68: Kamano H, Noguchi T, Yoshiura T, Mihara F, Togao O, Shono T, Iwaki T, Sasaki
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69: Cappabianca S, Colella G, Russo A, Pezzullo M, Reginelli A, Iaselli F,
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70: Papanagiotou P, Grunwald IQ, Politi M, Roth C, Körner H, Reith W. [Orbital
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71: Zimmer A, Reith W. [Inflammatory diseases of the orbit]. Radiologe. 2008
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72: Bossolesi P, Autelitano L, Brusati R, Castelnuovo P. The silent sinus
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74: Kolk A, Pautke C, Wiener E, Schott V, Wolff KD, Horch HH, Rummeny EJ.
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77: Kadom N. Pediatric strabismus imaging. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2008
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78: Pollock JM, Greiner FG, Crowder JB, Crowder JW, Quindlen E. Neurosarcoidosis
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79: Perry M. Acute proptosis in trauma: retrobulbar hemorrhage or orbital
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82: Parmar H, Ibrahim M. Extrathyroidal manifestations of thyroid disease:
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83: Chen MM, Coakley FV, Kaimal A, Laros RK Jr. Guidelines for computed
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84: Athanasiov PA, Prabhakaran VC, Selva D. Non-traumatic enophthalmos: a review.
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Review. PubMed PMID: 18462475.

86: Hasegawa K, Schofer JM, Bramblett GT. Images in emergency medicine. Acute
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87: Kabala JE. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in diseases of
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10.1016/j.ejrad.2008.03.030. Review. PubMed PMID: 18502599.

88: Goh PS, Gi MT, Charlton A, Tan C, Gangadhara Sundar JK, Amrith S. Review of
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10.1016/j.ejrad.2008.03.031. Review. PubMed PMID: 18501542.

90: Schmalfuss IM, Camp M. Skull base: pseudolesion or true lesion? Eur Radiol.
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91: McIntosh D, Mahadevan M. Failure of contrast enhanced computed tomography
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From Amazon search below (Head and Neck Radiology)

From RSNA 2016:

Blitz,A, Cranial Nerves: Perineural Spread and Primary Tumors. Radiological Society of North America 2016 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting, November 27 - December 2, 2016, Chicago IL. Accessed December 5, 2016

Becker,M, Multiparametric Imaging of Orbital Lesions. Radiological Society of North America 2016 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting, November 27 - December 2, 2016, Chicago IL. Accessed December 5, 2016

Casselman,J, MRI Congenital and Inflammatory Disorders of Middle and Inner Ear. Radiological Society of North America 2016 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting, November 27 - December 2, 2016, Chicago IL. December 5, 2016

Articulating some educational theory below:

"Understanding basic theory using a few illustrative examples. Mastering a topic by exposure to and experience with many examples

Typical examples or real-life scenarios can be used to illustrate theory, and help students understand fundamental principles. Mastering a topic usually requires exposure to and experience with many examples, both typical and atypical, common to uncommon including subtle manifestations of a phenomenon. The traditional method of doing this is via a long apprenticeship, or many years of practice with feedback and experience. A digital collection of educational scenarios and cases can support and potentially shorten this educational and training process. Particularly if a systematic attempt is made to collect and curate a comprehensive collection of all possible educational scenarios and case-based examples, across the whole spectrum of professional practice. Online access to key elements, parts of and whole sections of these learning cases; used by students with guidance by instructors under a deliberate practice and mastery training framework, can potentially accelerate the educational process, and deepen learning."

above from
Goh, P.S. A series of reflections on eLearning, traditional and blended learning. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:19. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Short Biography:

Dr Goh is a graduate of the Melbourne Medical School in Australia (1987), a Fellow of the Royal College of Radiologists in the UK (1993), Fellow of the Academy of Medicine in Singapore, and has obtained a Master of Heath Professions Education from Maastricht University (2012). He has been practicing as a clinical radiologist for the last 26 years, and teaching at the National University of Singapore (NUS) and National University Hospital (NUH) for the last 23 years. He has a special interest in Neuroradiology, and a long-standing association and collaboration with the Ophthalmology Department at NUH (with involvement as lead radiologist for the monthly clinical-radiology-pathology teaching case review session for the last 15 years, and role as curator of the digital teaching material from this meeting for the first 10 years - there are now over 650 indexed teaching cases of orbital disease in this digital teaching repository).

"Passions - Technology enhanced learning, Education, Radiology. Technology as a tool, platform and enabler to support and augment face to face customised teaching and learning; with educational principles as the foundation; and radiology as my academic and clinical focus."
(above link to presentation website)

Selected publications:

Yong AM, Zhao DB, Siew SC, Goh PS, Liao J, Amrith S. “Assessment of bony nasolacrimal parameters among Asians.” Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014 Jul-Aug;30(4):322-7.

Goh, P.S., Gi, M.T., Charlton, A., Tan, C., Gangadhara Sundar, J.K., Amrith, S. “Review of orbital imaging” (2008) European Journal of Radiology, 66 (3), pp. 387-395.

Amrith, S., Goh, P.S., Wang, S.-C. “Lacrimal sac volume measurement during eyelid closure and opening” (2007) Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 35 (2), pp. 135-139.

Amrith, S., Goh, P.S., Wang, S.-C. “Tear flow dynamics in the human nasolacrimal ducts - A pilot study using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (2005)” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 243 (2), pp. 127-131.

Goh, P.S., Khoo, C.Y., Heng, L.K., Yeoh, R.L.S, Lim, A.S.M. “Pseudomonas keratitis with soft contact lenses.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology (1989) Oct; 1(1), pp. 12-13.

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